Sorting is the fundamental algorithmic problem in computer science, and it has a long history. Knuth  attributes the merge-sort algorithm to von Neumann (1945). Quicksort is due to Hoare . The original heap-sort algorithm is due to Williams , but the version presented here (in which the heap is constructed bottom-up in time) is due to Floyd . Lower-bounds for comparison-based sorting appear to be folklore. The following table summarizes the performance of these comparison-based algorithms:
Each of these comparison-based algorithms has its advantages and disadvantages. Merge-sort does the fewest comparisons and does not rely on randomization. Unfortunately, it uses an auxilliary array during its merge phase. Allocating this array can be expensive and is a potential point of failure if memory is limited. Quicksort is an in-place algorithm and is a close second in terms of the number of comparisons, but is randomized, so this running time is not always guaranteed. Heap-sort does the most comparisons, but it is in-place and deterministic.
There is one setting in which merge-sort is a clear-winner; this occurs when sorting a linked-list. In this case, the auxiliary array is not needed; two sorted linked lists are very easily merged into a single sorted linked-list by pointer manipulations (see Exercise 11.2).
The counting-sort and radix-sort algorithms described here are due to Seward [68, Section 2.4.6]. However, variants of radix-sort have been used since the 1920s to sort punch cards using punched card sorting machines. These machines can sort a stack of cards into two piles based on the existence (or not) of a hole in a specific location on the card. Repeating this process for different hole locations gives an implementation of radix-sort.
Finally, we note that counting sort and radix-sort can be used to sort other types of numbers besides non-negative integers. Straightforward modifications of counting sort can sort integers, in any interval , in time. Similarly, radix sort can sort integers in the same interval in time. Finally, both of these algorithms can also be used to sort floating point numbers in the IEEE 754 floating point format. This is because the IEEE format is designed to allow the comparison of two floating point numbers by comparing their values as if they were integers in a signed-magnitude binary representation .